7 articles found from author T. Graafsma
By D. Balraadjsing | T. Graafsma
The bridge across the Suriname River in Paramaribo is the only one in Suriname high enough to kill oneself by jumping from it. Although the bridge is known as a place widely used to commit suicide, data and background of the suicides are lacking.
To provide more insight into bridge suicides in Paramaribo, this article presents some data about these suicides and potential suicides.
Five case studies are presented to illustrate the very diverse backgrounds of some of these suicides and show how the persons who committed them, also seem to share a psychic pain that they felt to be unbearable.
Child maltreatment still is primarily considered to be a public health problem and an issue of harm to vulnerable individuals, not so much as a violation of children’s human rights. It is discussed that ratification of the Convention of the Rights of the Child however should explicitly lead to a rights-based approach. After discussing some theoretical and methodological issues, data on prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname are presented, followed by a discussion on consequences in terms of health and of approach to prevention.
Het ontwikkelen en uitvoeren van een effectieve aanpak van geweld tegen kinderen is verre van eenvoudig. In dit artikel worden de uitgangspunten van een zorgvuldige aanpak besproken, vooral van geweld tegen kinderen door personen aan wie de zorg over een kind is toevertrouwd. Aan de orde komen met name de internationale standaarden en het raamwerk dat moet worden gebouwd rondom een aanpak die zich uitstrekt van preventie tot behandeling en gerechtelijke procedures. Een aantal maatregelen worden besproken die er toe kunnen bijdragen dat de rechten van een kind, dat slachtoffer of getuige is van geweld, zo goed mogelijk veilig gesteld worden.
By S. Gangaram Panday | T. Graafsma
In Suriname, the chemical paraquat is a widely used herbicide which is insufficiently regulated and controlled. In this short report we point out two main reasons for looking closer into the dangers paraquat may bring. First: paraquat is a common and very lethal method of attempting suicide. Second: serious suspicions exist that paraquat may influence young mothers and in particular the brains of their babies, even in the prenatal period, possibly leaving them with life-long damage in brain structure and function.
By T. Graafsma | K. Westra | A. Kerkhof
Background: In the past 15 years, the suicide rate for Suriname almost doubled. The more agricultural districts show the higher rates. Research in the district Nickerie concerning the years 2000-2004 revealed the highest rates of suicide and attempted suicide.
Aims: To present a general overview of suicide prevalence data for Suriname, as well as to provide more detailed follow-up data on suicide rates and characteristics of suicidal behaviour in Nickerie, covering the years 2000-2012.
Method: Descriptive exploratory and epidemiological research on national data, specified for Nickerie. As in 2000-2004, from 2004 to 2012 Nickerie police and hospital registries were studied suicide: N=161, attempted suicide: N=646. In addition, a sample N=348 of patients was interviewed about their motives for attempted suicide, using the Suicide Intent Scale SIS.
Results: The national suicide rate doubled since 2000, far beyond the world average and seems to flatten towards a rate of 27. The suicide rate in Nickerie was high 47/100 000. Unlike the increasing national rate, the Nickerie prevalence rate was fairly stable. For suicide, men were particularly at risk. The male - female ratio was 3:1. Most vulnerable was the East-Asian community. Admissions to the two Emergency Wards in Suriname confirm the overrepresentation of the East Asians in attempted suicide. Pesticide intoxication accounts for more than half of all suicidal behaviours. Data from Nickerie show that most suicide attempts are impulsive actions. Suicidal intent is low to medium. Women attempting suicide score higher on suicidal intent than men.
Conclusions: Compared to the results from previous research, both suicide and attempted suicide rates remain on a very high level. The implications of the study for policy and intervention are discussed.
By T. Graafsma | M. Manohar
Suriname has been urged by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child to intensify its efforts to protect children from all forms of violence, corporal punishment included.
In this article, the legal obligations resulting from ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child are explored. Current law aimed at protecting children from violence is compared to international legislation. Using recent research in this area, some remarks are made about the wide gap between practice and theory. To be effective, laws – and in particular in the field of protecting children from violence – not only should exist on paper, they need to be convincing so as to result in changing practice. Thus, they need to be accompanied by approaches from a Public Health point of view. Some recommendations are made that may assist in stepping up efforts to protect children better from all forms of violence.
By I. van der Kooij | E. Verlinden | T. Graafsma | F. Boer | C. de Jonge | S. de Kruijf | R. Lindauer
The use of validated instruments on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD concerning children in Suriname is scarce. Worldwide, the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale CRIES-13 is one of the most used instruments to screen for PTSD in children. Current study investigated the use of this tool in Suriname. In three group homes in Paramaribo and a welfare institute, two schools, and two group homes in Nickerie, 65 children filled out the CRIES-13. All these children had been exposed to one or more Adverse Childhood Experiences during their lives. In Nickerie, where there was the possibility to include participation of parents, the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV - Child and Parent Version ADIS-C/P was administered to 26 children and their parents to assess PTSD. The CRIES-13 showed to have good face validity. Besides, it demonstrated good internal consistency 0.75 and high test-retest reliability .80. Furthermore, the CRIES-13 correlated well with the ADIS-C/P. A cut-off score of 30 emerged as the one striking the best balance between sensitivity .91 and specificity .73. The CRIES-13 was shown to be a reliable and valid instrument to screen for PTSD in children in Suriname. This will allow the detection of children who are in need of professional help, and therefore offer treatment in an early stage in order to prevent chronic symptoms.